In the Normal Eye, light rays pass through the cornea (clear front portion of the eye), through the lens, and are focused on the retina (back portion of the eye). Once focused on the retina, information is transmitted by millions of tiny nerve bundles via the optic nerve to the brain where these images are translated into what we know as “sight.” When light rays are focused in front of, instead of on, the retina, we describe this condition as myopia, or nearsightedness. When the light rays are focused behind the retina, then hyperopia, or farsightedness, results.
Hyperopia -or farsightedness, has been one of the most challenging problems that we have faced. Also hyperopia is sometimes difficult for patients to understand. It is important to remember that hyperopia is basically opposite from myopia or nearsightedness. The things that cause an individual to become hyperopic. In a hyperopic individual, light rays that enter the eye are focused behind the retina instead of directly on the retina as in a normal eye. It is an inherited condition. It is present in childhood, but it does not usually become apparent to most people until they are in the late 30’s, when they can no longer use their own muscles inside the eye to overcome it.
Through the natural aging process, changes occur in the lens of the eye which interfere with our ability to see clearly. The first change begins about the age of forty when the lens loses its elasticity and begins to harden. When this occurs, the lens can no longer change shape to focus properly. As a result, close objects cannot be seen clearly and reading begins to be a problem. This hardening of the lens is called presbyopia.
A common eye condition most often caused by a misshaped or irregular cornea. Astigmatism is a refractive error which results in blurred or distorted vision. In most cases, astigmatism is correctable with glasses or contact lenses.
With a clear normal lens, the images are focused clearly on the retina. Vision is clear. With a cataract, the lens is cloudy, causing the image to become blurred and yellowed. Vision is hazy and colors become faded.
If you are interested in contacts — or you already wear them and want to have your contact lens prescription updated — make sure you say so when you schedule your appointment for an eye exam. This will ensure your exam includes extra time for your optometrist or ophthalmologist to perform additional tests needed for a proper contact lens fitting or prescription update.
A chalazion is a swollen bump on the eyelid. It happens when the eyelid’s oil gland clogs up. It may start as an internal hordeolum (stye). At first, you might not know you have a chalazion as there is little or no pain. But as it grows, your eyelid may get red, swollen, and sometimes tender to touch. If the chalazion gets large, it can press on your eye and cause blurry vision. Rarely, the whole eyelid might swell.
Dry eyes is a common condition that occurs when your tears aren’t able to provide adequate lubrication for your eyes. Tears can be inadequate for many reasons. For example, dry eyes may occur if you don’t produce enough tears or if you produce poor-quality tears.
Diabetic Retinopathy – is the leading cause of blindness among adults. Approximately, 25% of current diabetics have some form of the disease. The risk of developing diabetic retinopathy increases with the age of the diabetic person and the duration of the disease. It is estimated that 90% of diabetics may experience some for of diabetic retinopathy over the course of their life. However, only a small percentage of those developing diabetic retinopathy have serious vision problems and even a smaller percentage become blind.
We can probably agree that your vision is one of your most precious senses, and it goes without saying that it is important to take good care of your sight. Routine eye exams play an important role in making sure we maintain good vision and healthy eyes.
Pterygium is a growth of fleshy tissue (has blood vessels) that may start as a pinguecula. It can remain small or grow large enough to cover part of the cornea. When this happens, it can affect your vision.
Keratoconus is an eye disease that causes progressive steepening of the corneal surface over time and can result in the need for specialty contact lenses, and in some cases, corneal surgery. In early to moderate stages, collagen cross linking is a treatment that has shown promise to help slow or stabilize the progression of corneal thinning. Your initial examination will help to determine if you are a good candidate for this procedure.
Macular Degeneration – is the leading cause of impaired reading or detailed vision. It is caused by the breakdown of the macula, the central portion of the retina. Although macular degeneration causes distortion of central and color vision, side vision is not affected.
Pink Eye is an inflammation of the conjunctiva. The conjunctiva is the thin clear tissue that lies over the white part of the eye and lines the inside of the eyelid. It’s very unlikely to damage your vision, especially if you find it and treat it quickly. When you take care to prevent its spread and do all the things your doctor recommends, pink eye clears up with no long-term problems.
Red eyes (or red eye) is a condition where the white of the eye (the sclera) has become reddened or “bloodshot.” The appearance of red eye can vary widely. It can look like there are several squiggly pink or red lines on the sclera or the entire sclera may appear diffusely pink or red. Red or bloodshot eyes are very common and have many causes. Red eye usually is a symptom of other eye conditions that can range from benign to serious. If you suddenly develop red eye, visit an eye doctor to determine cause and best way to get rid of red eyes.
A sty is a red, painful lump near the edge of your eyelid that may look like a boil or a pimple. Sties are often filled with pus. A sty usually forms on the outside of your eyelid. But sometimes it can form on the inner part of your eyelid.